lab 22 Git Internals:
The .git directory
- Learn about the structure of the
Time to do some exploring. First, from the root of your project directory…
ls -C .git
$ ls -C .git COMMIT_EDITMSG ORIG_HEAD hooks logs rr-cache HEAD config index objects MERGE_RR description info refs
This is the magic directory where all the git “stuff” is stored. Let’s peek in the objects directory.
The Object Store
ls -C .git/objects
$ ls -C .git/objects 09 24 43 6b 94 af dd e7 info 11 27 59 78 97 b5 e1 ef pack 19 28 69 7b 9c c4 e4 f6
You should see a bunch of directories with 2 letter names. The directory names are the first two letters of the sha1 hash of the object stored in git.
Deeper into the Object Store
ls -C .git/objects/<dir>
$ ls -C .git/objects/09 6b74c56bfc6b40e754fc0725b8c70b2038b91e 9fb6f9d3a104feb32fcac22354c4d0e8a182c1
Look in one of the two-letter directories. You should see some files with 38-character names. These are the files that contain the objects stored in git. These files are compressed and encoded, so looking at their contents directly won’t be very helpful, but we will take a closer look in a bit.
$ cat .git/config [core] repositoryformatversion = 0 filemode = true bare = false logallrefupdates = true ignorecase = true precomposeunicode = true [user] name = Jim Weirich email = jim (at) edgecase.com
This is a project-specific configuration file. Config entries in here will override the config entries in the
.gitconfig file in your home directory, at least for this project.
Branches and Tags
ls .git/refs ls .git/refs/heads ls .git/refs/tags cat .git/refs/tags/v1
$ ls .git/refs heads tags $ ls .git/refs/heads master $ ls .git/refs/tags v1 v1-beta $ cat .git/refs/tags/v1 7bf0bf17ab217ae2415f16aaddc55d0ee1d1db8e
You should recognize the files in the tags subdirectory. Each file corresponds to a tag you created with the
git tag command earlier. Its content is just the hash of the commit tied to the tag.
The heads directory is similar, but is used for branches rather than tags. We only have one branch at the moment, so all you will see is master in this directory.
The HEAD File
$ cat .git/HEAD ref: refs/heads/master
The HEAD file contains a reference to the current branch. It should be a reference to master at this point.